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Sleep

A lack of sleep is associated with similar physiological pathways that may occur with stress, through behavioural changes associated with hormone and energy dysregulation...

Sleeping Kitten

A lack of sleep is associated with similar physiological pathways that may occur with stress, through behavioural changes associated with hormone and energy dysregulation but also through pathophysiological pathways directly leading to the increased risk of T2DM independent of lifestyle-related behaviours. A meta-analysis of ten studies of sleep and diabetes (n=107,756) found short sleep durations (5-6 hours per night) increased T2DM risk (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.03-1.60) and also increased difficulty in initiating sleep (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.0). They also found increased risk at longer durations of sleep (8-9 hours, HR 1.5 95% CI 1.1-2.0). These studies were adjusted to ensure BMI was not a factor (Cappuccio, D'Elia, Stazzullo, & Miller, 2010).

 

Sleep allows better regulation of insulin, decreased leptin (helps to control appetite), DNA remodelling and repair, increase in GH release, gradual increase in cortisol, fatty acid metabolism, promotion of ATP synthesis, memory encoding and consolidation (Mesarwi, Polak, Jun, & Polotsky, 2013).

 

Sleep is associated with better emotional regulation (Anderson & Bradley, 2013)

It is associated with better insulin sensitivity, lower glucose levels (Spiegel, Knutson, :eproult, Tasali, & Van Cauter, 2005). Sleep is associated with lower cortisol.

 

People with lower leptin levels and higher carbohydrate dense foods – people sleeping 4 hours for 5 nights in a row sought out approximately 300 calories more – especially more from saturated fat during the day. (Spiegel, et al., 2004)

 

A workplace wellbeing report in 2022 by Nuffield identified;

  • Men and women in the UK only got an average 6 hours of sleep per night in the month before the survey, getting slightly less sleep than this time last year at 6.1hrs in 2022 (6.2hrs in 2021)

  • Around 37% of men and women got the recommended 7-8 hours of sleep per night in that month, falling slightly from 39% this time last year

  • 35–44-year-olds got the least amount of sleep in that month, with almost 50% only getting five to six hours per night, whilst only 33% got the recommended seven to eight hours of sleep per night

  • Fewer people (32%) on lower household incomes (£15,000 or less) got the recommended seven to eight hours of sleep per night than people (45%) on the highest incomes (over £75,000)

  • 20% more people on lower household incomes (£15,000 or less) said they got lower quality sleep than those on the highest incomes (over £75,000) (82% compared to 62%)

  • 71% of 16–24-year-olds have noticed a change in their sleep quantity and quality over the last 12 months, with 59% saying they get less sleep and 61% saying they get lower quality sleep.

References

Anderson, K. N., & Bradley, A. J. (2013). Sleep disturbance in mental health problems and neruodegenerative disease. Nat Sci Sleep, 5, 61-75.
 

Cappuccio, F. P., D'Elia, L. D., Stazzullo, P., & Miller, M. A. (2010). Quantity and quality of sleep and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care, 33, 414-420.

Mesarwi, O., Polak, J., Jun, J., & Polotsky, V. Y. (2013). Sleep disorders and hte development of insulin resistance and obesity. Endocrinol Metab Clin North am, 42(3), 617-634.

Spiegel, K., Knutson, K., :eproult, R., Tasali, E., & Van Cauter, E. (2005). Sleep loss: a novel risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Journal of Applied Physiology, 99(5), 2008-2019.

Spiegel, K., Leproult, R., L'hermite-Baleriaux, M., Copinschi, G., Penev, P. D., & Van Cauter, E. (2004). Leptin levels are dependent on sleep duration: relationships with sympathovagal balance, carbohydrate regulation, cortisol and thyrotropin. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89(11), 5762-5771

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