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Food shopping & habits

The availability of different types of food shops can have an impact on patients ability...

The availability of different types of food shops can have an impact on patients ability to improve dietary adherence in diabetes. One study looked at the impact of different food stores availability and shopping locations.

If patients were in locations with less access to larger supermarkets and grocery stores (but with more access to ‘convenience’ stores where there is less access to fresh produce) then they were at higher risk of obesity. The inverse association was found in areas with higher levels of supermarkets (Morland, Roux, & Wing, 2006).

Data from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (n=5124) was studied to look at the impact of neighbourhood exposure to healthy foods and risk of developing type 2 diabetes. As the exposure increased, the risk of developing diabetes reduced, and individuals were followed up for a mean of 8.9 years, HR 0.88, 95% CI, 0.79-0.98 (Christine, Auchinscloss, Bertoni, Carnethon, & al, 2016).

Holiday/festive seasons can have an impact on patients with diabetes. One study has looked at the effect of Christmas on diabetes control. Prior to Christmas typically Hba1c is much better however between November to January there is a significant rise in Hba1c before it starts to fall again back to pre-November levels in June the following year (Jones, McDonald, Hattersley, & Shields, 2014).

Around 21% of adults in England drink more than the recommended guidelines and alcohol intake is associated with obesity, weight gain and more than 200 medical conditions including depression, stroke, mouth, throat, stomach, liver and breast cancers (AlcoholChangeUK, 2020).

Excess alcohol is associated with an increased risk of T2DM (Hodge, English, O'dea, & Giles, 2006) but often studies are conflicting. Low to moderate consumption may be associated with lower risk. and contains carbohydrate, breaking down to glucose, contains glucose and may also contribute to weight gain.

A more recent meta-analysis suggests that alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (Yuan & Larsson, 2020).

Drinking alcohol stimulates appetite in the short-term which is associated with positive energy balance/excess calorie intake (Caton, Ball, Ahern, & Hetherington, 2004) which is confirmed in the Nurses Health Studies and Health Professionals Follow up studies. In the long-term excess alcohol intake is associated with rising BMI (Schroder, et al., 2007).



AlcoholChangeUK. (2020). Fact Sheet Alcohol Statistics. Retrieved 2023, from

Caton, S. J., Ball, M., Ahern, A., & Hetherington, M. M. (2004). Dose-dependent effects of alcohol on appetite and food intake. Physiology & behavior, 81(1), 51-58.

Christine, P. J., Auchinscloss, A. H., Bertoni, A. G., Carnethon, M. R., & al, e. (2016). Longitudinal associations between neighborhood physical and social environments and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). JAMA internal medicine, 175(8), 1311-1320.

Hodge, A. M., English, D. R., O'dea, K., & Giles, G. G. (2006). Alcohol intake, consumption pattern and beverage type, and the risk of Type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 23(6), 690-697.

Jones, A. G., McDonald, T. J., Hattersley, A. T., & Shields, B. M. (2014). Effect of the holiday season in patients with diabetes: glycemia and lipids increase postholiday, but the effect is small and transient. , . Diabetes Care, 37(5), e98-e99.

Morland, K., Roux, A. V., & Wing, S. (2006). Morland, K., Roux, A.V.D. and Wing, S., 2006. Supermarkets, other food stores, and obesity: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.
American journal of preventive medicine, 30(4), pp.333-339.

Schroder, H., Morales-Molina, J., Bermejo, D., Barral, D., Mandoli, E. S., & Grau, M. e. (2007). Relationship of abdominal obesity with alcohol consumption at population scale . European Journal of Nutrition, 46, 369-376.

Yuan, S., & Larsson, S. C. (2020). An atlas on risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a wide-angled Mendelian randomisation study. Diabetologia, 63, 2359-2371.

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